Planting Florence fennel. Also known as finochio. The large, tender leafstalks may be used in salad but usually are cooked as a pot herb. The seed should be sown 1/2 inch deep in rows 20 inches apart and the plants thinned to stand 6 inches apart. When the leafstalks are about 2 inches thick, soil may be hilled up around the plants for blanching the lower part. Fennel needs fertile soil rich in moisture.
Planting garlic. A very small supply is needed. Each large bulb contains about z o smaller ones called cloves. Propagation is by planting the cloves, setting them i1/2 inches deep and 3 inches apart. They grow into bulbs in turn containing about io cloves. Garlic needs rich soil and mild weather, free of frequent rainfall. When the tops fall pull out the bulbs, dry them and keep in a cool, dry place.
Planting kohlrabi. Harvested and used like turnips. Kohlrabi is cold-hardy but sensitive to summer heat in most parts of the country. The seed: may be started indoors and transplanted, or sown in drills in the place where they will grow. Place in rows 16 inches apart and thin the plants to a 4-inch spacing. Kohlrabi requires soil that is very fertile, moist and of good texture, such as is suitable to cabbage. Its edible portion is the swollen stem, and it should be harvested while young and tender.
Planting leeks. Related to the onion and used in the ways green onions are used. They are started from seed, usually sown in a trench so that they can be hilled up readily as growth proceeds. They should be set 3 inches apart in rows 16 inches apart and the seeds covered about 1/2 inch. They may be used whenever they reach the size of a usable green onion, but under good conditions the stalks grow to 1/2 inches in diameter.
Planting mustard. Sown basically for greens and cooked like spinach. Large-leaf oriental varieties such as Southern Curled, Elephant Ear and Ostrich Plume (Fordhook Fancy) are used for greens. The common white and black mustards are grown principally for seeds rather than greens. Mustard, which will grow in almost any good soil, is a quick-growing spring or autumn crop that will not stand heat. Make successive sowings as early as possible for spring or sow in September or October for late use. Sow the seeds thickly in drills. Set the rows 16 inches apart. Cover seeds to a depth of 1/2 inch.
Planting New Zealand spinach.
Not related to spinach but cooked the same way. It thrives in hot weather
in soil suitable to spinach and may be grown as a seasonal substitute
for spinach. The seeds may not germinate promptly and it is advisable
to soak them an hour or two in water at 120 degrees. They should be planted
to a depth of
Planting okra. Also known as gumbo. Okra, which will grow in any good garden soil, is a warm weather vegetable and is grown principally in the South. An ample supply of readily available plant food promotes growth. Seeds should not be sown until the soil is warm. Space the rows 3 feet apart and plant the seeds every few inches, then thin the plants to stand Oh to 2 feet apart in the rows. Pick the pods as soon as they are ripe and tender, which is soon after the bloom falls. Old pods are unfit to eat. Good tall-growing varieties are Clemson-Spineless, Lady Finger, and Perkins Mammoth. Dwarf Green is a good smaller growing one. Seeds are slow and difficult to germinate. Soaking them overnight is helpful.
Planting parsley. Used principally for garnishing and sometimes for flavouring; a few feet of one row will provide an ample supply for any average family. The seeds germinate slowly; soaking overnight will help. Parsley thrives in any good, fertile soil, but the seedlings are delicate and the soil should be free of clods and trash and not subject to baking. Indoor sowing, with later transplanting to the garden, is advisable in the North to get the crop before hot weather. Sow the seeds 1/4 inch deep and 4 or 5 inches apart in rows 16 inches apart. It is a good idea to place a board over the row for a few days, then take it up and water daily to assist germination of as many seeds as possible.
Planting peppers. Steadily gaining an extensive place on the American table and growing in popularity as a home garden crop. The requirements of peppers are similar to those of tomatoes but they are far more demanding. They need fertile soil, sufficient moisture, and a lengthy growing season with high temperatures. In the North they must not be planted until the soil has warmed up and the danger of frost is over. Two months is needed to grow plants for transplanting. Set the plants 18 inches apart in rows 30 inches apart. Red Cayenne and Red Chili are varieties generally grown for flavouring. Popular sweet peppers, adaptable to a large part of the country, include Worldbeater, Ruby. King, and California Wonder, while. Early Giant and Windsor-A are good varieties of this type for regions of cool, brief summers. Even in small gardens peppers are worth the space needed for a dozen or so plants.
Planting rutabagas. Similar to turnips in many respects but recommended only for gardens north of the latitude of Indianapolis. They grow in any good, fertile soil, are more sensitive to heat than turnips, are hardy to frost but will not stand severe freezing. Only a quarter ounce of seed is needed for zoo feet of row. Space the rows 20 inches apart and set the plants in the rows 4 inches apart. American Purple Top is the most widely grown variety in the United States. It is yellow-fleshed.
Planting salsify. Similar to parsnips but needs a longer growing season. The soil must be thoroughly pulverized to a depth of r foot or more. Fresh seeds must be used—they have a short life. Sow to a depth of 1/2 inch, and 2 inches apart in rows 20 inches apart. Like parsnips, salsify may be left in the ground throughout the winter or stored. Mammoth Sandwich Island is the principal variety.
Planting shallot. A small onion of the multiplier type, recommended for its flavour, which is more delicate than most onions. It produces a form of scallion, or green onion, for early spring. The usual method of propagation is by planting the small divisions or cloves into which the shallot splits during growth. Year to year planting is recommended for the best results, although the plant is hardy and may be left in the ground.
Planting soybeans. American gardeners are quickly becoming more familiar with the vegetable varieties of the soybean as a food crop. Among the more extensively grown varieties are Giant Green, Bansei, Jogun, Hokkaido, and Imperial.Soybeans require a reasonably fertile, well-drained soil, as do bush beans in general, but need warmer weather and take longer to mature than most other beans. Small, early varieties may be planted in rows only 2 feet apart, but the later, larger ones must be planted in rows 3 feet apart. Seeds should be planted 3 inches apart in the rows and covered to a depth of Oh inches. Harvest the pods before they turn yellow and when the seeds are fully grown. The beans are cooked for serving in virtually the same way as peas or lima beans. Shelling is facilitated if the pods are steamed or boiled for a few minutes. In scheduling planting for any specific locality it is important that the gardener select the correct variety and know its time of maturity. Differences in development time among the several varieties are great.
Planting sprouting broccoli. Increasing steadily in popularity among American gardeners. Sprouting broccoli, grown the same as cabbage, forms a loose flower head on a tall, branching stalk. It is hardy to frost and resistant to heat. Plants may be developed by transplanting, or seeds from the late crop may be sown in place. If seeds are used, four or five are planted in one spot where the plants are to stand, and the planting later is thinned to one plant. Rows should be 3o inches apart and the plants in each row 18 inches apart. Seeds are covered to a depth of 1/2 inch. A packet of seeds serves 100 feet of row. Italian Green Sprouting is the most commonly used variety. Harvest when the flower clusters are developed but before the petals start to yellow. Cut the sprouts carrying flower buds about 6 inches in length. Other sprouts arise in the axils of the leaves providing continuous harvest.
Planting squash. One of the most widely grown home-garden vegetables. Bush varieties are summer squash. The vining or trailing varieties are winter squash, requiring so much space and needing so much time for development that they should be confined to large gardens only. Both types may be planted in hills of about four plants each, with 4-foot clearance each way in the row. With summer squash the rows should be 4 feet apart; and the spacing doubled for trailing squash. Squash needs soil rich inorganic matter, and a thorough mixture of well-rotted manure with the soil is recommended. Bush squash must be hardened while the fruits are immature and the rind may be punctured easily with the thumbnail, before the seeds start to harden. They must be used at once. Winter squash, which have hard rinds, are well suited to storage for many weeks in a warm, dry place. Popular bush types are Yellow Bush Scallop, Yellow Crookneck, and Yellow Straightneck, whereas Cocozelle and Zucchini are bush varieties yielding dark green, somewhat cylindrical fruits. Hubbard, Boston Marrow, and Delicious are widely used varieties of vining winter squash.
Planting Swiss chard. Excellent hot weather greens. Crop after crop of the outer leaves may be cut from the plant and the inner leaves will continue to develop, thus providing a heavy yield throughout most of the summer from only one planting. Although grown for greens, it is a type of beet without an enlarged root and, like the beet, is sensitive to soil acidity and needs rich, mellow soil. Plant the seed to a depth of 3/4 of an inch, well spaced in rows 2 feet apart. Keep the plants thinned out to at least 6 inches apart and do not let them crowd the row.
Planting turnips. In two distinct groups, one grown for roots, the other for greens. Not only the roots but the greens of the root variety are generally eaten, but if only tops are sought it is best to grow the greens variety. Turnips are hardy and susceptible to heat. Of the roots group Purple Top White Globe is the most commonly used white-fleshed variety and Golden Ball or Orange Jelly the most widely used of yellow flesh. Shogoin is popular for spring greens and if allowed to grow produces a high-quality white-fleshed root. Seven Top is the most popular greens turnip that does not produce an enlarged edible root. Turnips grow to good size in 6o to 8o days. They require fertile soil which need not be prepared deeply. Seeds are very small and care must be taken not to sow them too thickly. If sown in rows a half ounce of seed will suffice for 300 feet of row; if sown broadcast it will cover 300 square feet. Rows should be 16 inches apart. Seeds should be covered lightly and the plants thinned as they grow. For a spring crop, turnips must be planted as early as possible.
Planting water cress. One of the few vegetable crops that may be grown in wet surroundings. If your property has a spring or brook you may plant water cress in the moist soil at the edge. It grows the year around in moderate regions of the North and is best in winter in the South. Water from springs in limestone regions of Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia and the Ozarks provide excellent conditions. Water cress is started from seed and from pieces of the plant, needs no special care, and flourishes in wild state.
Planting witloof chicory. Its blanched leaves may be used raw in salad or cooked like spinach or chard. The leaves are obtained by forcing the roots, which are set close together in a box of moist soil. The soil is piled just up to the crowns, watered thoroughly, then covered with 6 inches of sand. Keep at a temperature of 55 to 60 degrees, in a hotbed or a warm cellar. Tender new leaves which form in beadlike clusters are cut from the roots for use. Soil for growing good roots must be rich, deep, and loose. Seeds are sown in drills 18 inches apart and the plants thinned to a spacing of 6 to 8 inches. After cold kills the tops the roots are dug up for forcing. If the plants are sown too early they go to seed and are no good for forcing. Witloof chicory sometimes is known as French endive.
Bulb planting Greenhouse