Across the continent north of this, to a line beginning at Philadelphia, the Hybrid Tea and the hardy climbing roses will live outdoors without protection, and again north to the Great Lakes and in New England there is a region of fertility in which the Hybrid Perpetuals and the Rugosa hybrids are hardy.
Another region includes elevations so high, summer frosts so late, and moisture so scanty, that roses cannot be expected to endure. This comparatively small region is north and south in isolated spots.
California and the Pacific Northwest present conditions peculiarly favourable to the rose. In Los Angeles and the vicinity, the distinguished amateur and hybridizer, Captain George C. Thomas, Jr., believes rose heaven to exist; but the cities of Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington, and the entire Puget Sound districts, are sure that they are the celestial region for the queen of flowers.
Indeed, these latter places reproduce, in a way, the peculiarly favourable rose conditions of England, and in defiance of the latitude, roses are grown as shrubs on the streets of Portland, the "City of Roses," which each year celebrates a great festival of rose beauty.
Methods of rose culture and knowledge of suitable varieties for any particular purpose are alike changing and improving, wherefore any hard-and-fast statements in relation to rose adaptability are hazardous, and may almost at once be disproved. Several years ago the Department of Agriculture in Washington prepared a "Rose-Zone Map," first published in the American Rose Annual for 1920, which, based on weather observations and records, divided the United States into zones for rose hardiness.
Scarcely was this map published when rose-friends began to controvert it with local facts. The chief value of the map was generally to classify the country and to start inquiry and criticism toward the more accurate setting out of the facts.
For example, in the American Rose Annual for 1923 were printed detailed reports from southern Ontario, Montana, Kansas, and Alaska, telling how well certain roses under certain conditions have in those places rewarded the grower, not seldom in contravention of the proposals of the Rose-Zone Map. Yet none of these instances did more than indicate what love and devotion could do, or show the exception that proves a rule!
The most definite statements yet obtained as to rose selections are those published in the 1923 American Rose Annual, as the result of a countrywide referendum. By permission, these are subjoined from "The Favoured Roses of All America," and the lists of varieties included.
An American rose referendum
"In June, 1922, President Pyle had sent to the entire membership a query card asking for returns on the 'favourite ten' bush roses—the Teas, Hybrid Teas, etc.—and on the best ten climbing roses.
The response was by far the largest in number and most informative in character of any yet received. Some 426 rose-growers took the trouble to answer, and many of them wrote letters in addition to using the return card. These replies have been carefully collated and studied and the information they provide is here made available.
"It is not too much to say that the conclusions reached are surprising, and even astonishing. That there should be such unanimity of opinion; that the favourite bush and climbing roses should be so nearly identical all over America—North, South, East, and West; that the verdict of this great and acute jury should be so definite, is matter for gratification.
"Further, the showing is most important in its helpfulness. The beginner in rose-growing has available to him a safe guide to primary success. The dozen favourites among the bush roses—for it was easy to extend the ten to twelve from these complete returns—give any one anywhere a blooming, scented, colourful, dependable assortment with which to lay the foundations, so to speak, of a rose-garden. The dozen hardy climbers provide a reach of vigour and beauty that was unattainable anywhere in the rose world at the beginning of the twentieth century.
"That there was great opportunity for selection is shown by the fact that in all 287 bush roses and 118 climbers were named in the returns. It was not at all a limited choice these amateurs had, in selecting by majority their "best 40" out of a total of 405 varieties considered. Indeed it may be assumed that the choice covered every rose available commercially in America, for every one of the 405 sorts was among the "best 10" in someone's list, and there were certainly as many more not considered worth including.
"The lists provide not only safe guidance for the favourite dozen in each class, but as well almost as dependable a choice beyond the favourites. All of the bush roses included in the 'favourite dozen' in each of the five sections come within 22 varieties, and the amateur can well depend upon all of them.
"With the exception of two sorts not hardy north, all of the 18 included climbers may well be planted by any one who has room for their varied beauty.
"The Editor confesses to some surprises, beyond the main surprise at the relative unanimity of choice. He rather expected Radiance to lead, but had no idea that Los Angeles would be in this chosen dozen. There was reason to believe that Frau Karl Druschki would be at the top, but it isn't.
"Then in the climbers there was the thought that the Noisettes would take top place in the South and in California, but instead we see the American trio, all Van Fleet originations, leading everywhere, and in the same order, save only in the South, where Silver Moon changes places with Dr. W. Van Fleet. This latter difference seems peculiarly proper, because of the Cherokee blood in Silver Moon.
"The lists follow, first as collated for all America, next as including all the varieties in the two classes embraced in the favourite dozen for each of the five sections, and last in the choice as separated into those five geographical sections.
Favourite Bush (Tea, Hybrid Tea, and Hybrid Perpetual) Roses
In the New England States (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island): Frau Karl Druschki, Ophelia, Radiance, Duchess of Wellington, Mrs. Aaron Ward, Gruss an Teplitz, Los Angeles, Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, Killarney, Mme. Edouard Herriot, Jonkheer J. L. Mock, Lady Alice Stanley.
In the Middle States (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware): Ophelia, Frau Karl Druschki, Radiance, Duchess of Wellington, Mrs. Aaron Ward, Los Angeles, Mme. Edouard Herriot, Columbia, Gruss an Teplitz, Lady Alice Stanley, Killarney, Red Radiance.
In the Central States (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Arkansas): Frau Karl Druschki, Ophelia, Radiance, Gruss an Teplitz, Jonkheer J. L. Mock, Columbia, Mme. Caroline Testout, General Jacqueminot, Los Angeles, Sunburst, Killarney, Mrs. Aaron Ward.
In the Western States (Washington, Oregon, California Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, Idaho): Ophelia, Mme. Edouard Herriot, Los Angeles, General MacArthur, Frau Karl Druschki, Lady Hillingdon, Mme. Melanie Soupert, Hoosier Beauty, Duchess of Wellington, Mme. Caroline Testout, Joseph Hill, Sunburst.
In the Southern States (Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Texas, Kentucky, Tennessee): Radiance, Frau Karl Druschki, Ophelia, Red Radiance, Sunburst, Gruss an Teplitz, Mrs. Aaron Ward, Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, Columbia, Mme. Caroline Testout, Lady Hillingdon, Duchess of Wellington.
Favourite Climbing Roses
In the New England States: Dr. W. Van Fleet, Silver Moon, American Pillar, Dorothy Perkins, Tausendschiin, Paul's Scarlet Climber, Climbing American Beauty, Excelsa, Hiawatha, Gardenia, Aviateur Bleriot, Christine Wright.
In the Middle States: Dr. W. Van Fleet, Silver Moon, American Pillar, Paul's Scarlet Climber, Dorothy Perkins, Tausendschan, Climbing American Beauty, Gardenia, Excelsa, Christine Wright, Hiawatha, Climbing Lady Ashtown.
In the Central States: Dr. W. Van Fleet, Silver Moon, American Pillar, Climbing American Beauty, Dorothy Perkins, Excelsa, TausendschOn, Paul's Scarlet Climber, Christine Wright, Hiawatha, Aviateur Bleriot, Gardenia.
In the Western States: Dr. W. Van Fleet, Silver Moon, TausendschOn, American Pillar, Climbing Mme. Caroline Testout, Climbing Cecile Brunner, Dorothy Perkins, Paul's Scarlet Climber, Mme. Alfred Carriere, Excelsa, Climbing American Beauty, Marechal Niel.
In the Southern States: Silver Moon, Dr. W. Van Fleet, American Pillar, Climbing American Beauty, Dorothy Perkins, Paul's Scarlet Climber, Tausendschiin, Marechal Niel, Christine Wright, Excelsa, Gardenia, Mrs. Robert Peary.
"Taken all together, the two lists of chosen sorts for the whole country follow, together with the vote received by each in the total of 426 votes cast:
The 'Favourite Dozen' Bush Roses in the United States:
The ' Favourite Dozen' Climbing Roses in the United States:
As previously suggested, the beginner would not go astray if he planted all of the roses included in the five lists, as they follow.
All the Varieties Included in the 'Favourite Dozen' Bush Roses in the Five Districts of the United States:
Columbia, HT.; Duchess of Wellington, HT.; Frau Karl Druschki, HP.; General Jacqueminot, HP.; General Mac-Arthur, HT.; Gruss an Teplitz, HT.; Hoosier Beauty, HT.; Jonkheer J. L. Mock, HT.; Joseph Hill, HT.; Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, HT.; Killarney, HT.; Lady Alice Stanley, HT.; Lady Hillingdon, T.; Los Angeles, HT.; Mme. Caroline Testout, HT.; Mme. Edouard Herriot, Per.; Mme. Melanie Soupert, HT.; Mrs. Aaron Ward, HT.; Ophelia, HT.; Radiance, HT.; Red Radiance, HT.; Sunburst, HT.
All the Varieties Included in the 'Favourite Dozen' Climbing
Roses in the Five Districts of the United States:
American Pillar, HW.; Aviateur Bleriot, HW.; Christine Wright, HW.; Cl. American Beauty, HW.; Cl. Cecile Brunner, Mult.; Cl. Lady Ashtown, Cl. HT.; Cl. Mme. Caroline Testout, Cl. HT.; Dorothy Perkins, HW.; Dr. W. Van Fleet, HW.; Excelsa, HW.; Gardenia, HW.; Hiawatha, HW.; Marechal Niel, Nois.; Mme. Alfred Carriere, Nois.; Mrs. Robert Peary, Cl. HT.; Paul's Scarlet Climber, HW.; Silver Moon, HW.; TausendschOn, Mult.
The 22 favoured bush roses include, in broad colour classes, 2 white, 7 pink, 5 red, 5 yellow, and 3 salmon sorts. The 18 favoured climbers are divided among 2 white, 8 pink, 4 red, and 4 yellow varieties.